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ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY/ DISORDER (ADHD)
We do not intend the information that we provide here to be used as a diagnostic tool. Do not use it to arrive at or exclude a diagnosis. Our intention in providing information about a psychological-emotional ailment is so you can recognize some of the features of this ailment.
Do not use this as a substitute for professional evaluation or professional treatment.
If you have a problem, you should first consult a licensed mental health professional to assess the severity of the problem. Try to find a mental health professional who is sympathetic or at least not opposed to the concept of using alternative medicine for psychological-emotional ailments. Then, seek a licensed practitioner for the particular form of alternative therapy, e.g. herbalist, acupuncturist, naturopath, etc. Stay in consultation with the mental health professional to monitor your progress.
Traditional psychiatric treatment must be sought if a mental disorder is so severe that the sufferer is suicidal or dangerous to others or his or her ability to function at home or work is severely impaired.
Use alternative medicine as a temporary aid to give you the symptomatic relief. As your symptoms are lessened and stress is reduced, learn the coping skills you need. Make appropriate emotional changes. Do not use alternative medicine in lieu of coping skills and emotional education. You must learn how your thoughts, feelings, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors contribute to your psychological-emotional ailments.
Psychological techniques and self-help measures are alluded to, but not discussed in detail in order to keep this presentation brief. Refer to other books, tapes, and magazines to learn about how you can make use of such psychological techniques and self-help measures to benefit you.
Make your goal to reach the state of self-sufficiency and self-reliance, that is, that eventually, you will not be needing a traditional medicine specialist, alternative therapist, or a counseling professional. For example, you will have the necessary skills to handle your tendency for depression, anxiety, or addiction.
Diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
A. Either (1) or (2):
(1) six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
(a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
(b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
(c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
(d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
(e) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
(f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework
(g) often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)
(h) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
(I) is often forgetful in daily activities
(2) six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
(a) often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
(b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
(c) often runs about of climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
(d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
(e) is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"
(f) often talks excessively
(g) often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
(h) often has difficulty awaiting turn
(I) often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
B. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years
C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home).
D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder).
Code based on type:
314.01 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type:
if both Criteria A1 and A2 are met for the past 6 months
314.00 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type:
if Criterion A1 is met but Criterion A2 is not met for the past 6 months
314.01 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive- Impulsive Type: if Criterion A2 is met but Criterion A1 is not met for the past 6 months
Coding Note: For individuals (especially adolescents and adults) who currently have symptoms that no longer meet full criteria, "In Partial Remission" should be specified.
Attention deficit disorder is the current term that encompasses a wide variety of names used in the past to describe similar disorders. The old names were hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, hyperkinetic syndrome, hyperactive child syndrome, minimal brain damage, minimal brain dysfunction, minimal cerebral dysfunction and minor cerebral dysfunction.
Currently three separate disorders are described:
Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity.
Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
Attention deficit disorder - combined type.
The rate of this disorder has been reported to be from 4 to 20 percent of school-age children. A more widely accepted conservative figure of 3 percent is currently acknowledged, due to improve diagnostic criteria. Clinical observation and population surveys report a substantially greater incidence in boys that girls (10:1).
The term food additives covers a wide range of chemicals (5,000 additives are used in the USA), such as anticaking agents (e.g. calcium silicate), antioxidants (e.g. common food additives such as butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT, and butylated hydroxyanixole, BHA), bleaching agents (e.g. benzoyl peroxide), colorings (e.g. artificial azo dye derivatives), flavorings, emulsifiers, mineral salts, preservatives (e.g. benzoates, nitrates, sulphites), thickeners and vegetable gums. The 1985 per capita daily consumption of food additives in the US was approximately 13-15 g. The hypothesis that food additives induce hyperactivity, commonly referred to as the Feingold hypothesis, stemmed from the research of Benjamin Feingold. According to Feingold, many hyperactive children, perhaps 40-50 percent, are sensitive to artificial food colors, flavors and preservatives and to naturally occurring salicylates and phenolic compounds.
Feingolds claims were based on his experience with over 1,200 cases in which food additives were linked to learning and behavior disorders. There is no wide support offered by the ADHD experts to the food allergy theory as a significant factor in ADHD.
Food additives, they play a role in hyperactivity. This is somewhat in opposition to the final report filed by the National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives to the USA Nutrition Foundation is 1980. However, the US Hyperactivity agreed to reconsider the Feingold diet in the amelioration of Hyperkinesis. About 50 percent of those who tried the Feingold diet in these studies displayed a decrease in symptoms of hyperactivity.
Effect of Light on ADHD:
It has been demonstrated that standard cool-white fluorescent lighting increases hyperactive behavior, while full spectrum light with radiation shields decreases hyperactivity.
There appears to be a strong association between sucrose consumption and artificial food dyes. In addition to this incriminating evidence connecting sucrose with negative effects on behavior, there are the Langseth and Dowd findings. These researchers performed 5-hour oral glucose tolerance tests on 261 hyperactive children, with the result that 64 percent displayed abnormal glucose tolerance curves. The predominant normality was a low, flat curve. Hypoglycemia eventually results in hyperactivity as adrenaline and other stimulants are released by the adrenal glands in response to the low blood sugar level. Refined carbohydrate appears to be the major factor in promoting reactive hypoglycemia.
Wide-range of allergies (sensitivities)
While artificial colorings and preservatives are the most common provoking substances in two of these studies, no child was sensitive to these substances alone. This suggests that, since food sensitivities provoke psychological symptoms, mere elimination of food additives from the diet is inadequate.
One large controlled trial treated 76 severely handicapped children with an oligoantigenic diet (lamb, chicken, potatoes, rice, bananas, apple, brassica family vegetable, calcium gluconate 3g/day and a multiple vitamin). After a four-week trial, 82 percent improved and a normal range of behavior was achieved in 21 of these. Other symptoms, such as headaches, abdominal pains and fits, also improved. Reintroduction of the foods to which the child was sensitive led to reappearance of symptoms and hyperactive behavior. No mention was made of the possibility that non-responders were reacting to foods on the oligoantigenic diet or perhaps the vitamins, although it was noted that physical complaints were reduced in the non-responders as well. Table 47.1 summarizes the results of two studies on food sensitivities and hyperactivity.
Table 47.1 Food allergy reactions in hyperactive children - results from two studies
Investigate the Food Allergy Possibility:
Considering the importance of food allergy, recognition and control of the offending allergens is critical. The elimination diet (see Chapter 38, Food allergy) for a period of four weeks, followed by reintroduction/challenge of suspected foods (full servings at least once a day, one food introduced per week), is the most sensible and economical approach. If symptoms recur or worsen upon reintroduction/challenge, the food should be withdrawn. If there is no improvement on the elimination diet, it is possible that the child is reacting to something in the diet or environment. Further testing may be indicated in these patients.
All refined sugars should be eliminated from the diet, and a general multivitamin and mineral supplement should be used (with special care to insure that the child is not allergic to the product used).
Chronic fluid retention in the ear (otitis media).
Children with moderate to severe hearing loss tend to have impaired speech and language development, lowered general intelligence scores and learning difficulties. Current and early incidence of otitis media have been reported to be twice as common in learning-disabled children as non-learning-disabled children. This reconfirms the necessity of dealing with otitis media from a preventive standpoint since many of the factors associated with hyperactivity are also associated with otitis media.
Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between childhood learning disabilities ( and other disorders including criminal behavior) and body stores of heavy metals, particularly lead.
Learning disabilities seem to be characterized by a general pattern of high hair levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper and manganese. Poor nutrition and elevation of heavy metals usually go hand in hand, due to decreased consumption of food factors known to chelate these heavy metals or decrease their absorption.
IS IT ALSO BRAIN MEDICINE?
A surprising use of OPC (Pychogenol) has arisen among people suffering from ADHD. It is said to have begun quite accidentally when people with ADD took OPC for another purpose, such as allergies, and noticed an improvement in concentration and mental focus, classic symptoms of attention deficit. Others started using it.
The use of OPC for this purpose has not been widely studied. But a preliminary study by Marion Sigurdson, Ph.D., a psychologist in Tulsa, Oklahoma, who specializes in treating attention deficit disorder, has found striking benefits from OPC. Using a blend of grape seed and pine bark (Dr. Masqueliers OPC - 85 product), Dr. Sigurdson found that it worked just as well as the commonly prescribed stimulant medications, including Ritalin, on thirty children and adults diagnosed with ADD. The subjects were given a battery of computerized and behavior tests to judge their attention, concentration, and other important factors in Add under various circumstances: when they were either on or off their usual stimulant medications, or on the OPC alone. When they were off their medications, their ADD deteriorated. On their medications, they were much improved. But when they took daily doses of the OPC grape seed-pine bark mixture, their scores and behavior were just as improved as when they took stimulant drugs. In other words, the OPC equaled the drugs in most subjects. Generally, children fared better on a lower dose (20 milligrams of OPC per 20 pounds of body weight daily, and adults did better with a higher dose of 40 milligrams per 20 pounds of body weight daily. Many of the subjects also had other positive effects: decreased heart beat, disappearance of tennis elbow, relief of acne, improved sleep and mood.)
Scientifically, how could this possibly be true? How could mundane grape seed and pine bark chemicals have a profound influence on the brain comparable to that of a powerful pharmaceutical drug? According to Marcia Aimmerman, a California consultant who specializes in research on OPC, there is some underpinning in the scientific literature. A fascinating way OPCs might affect brain cells, as shown by studies in cell cultures, she says, is by regulating enzymes that help control two crucial neurotransmitters-dopamine and norepinephrine, chemicals that carry messages among brain cells and are involved in "excitatory" responses. OPCs also help deliver nutrients to the brain, such as zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper that are helpful in ADHD, according to recent research. Additionally OPCs remarkable antioxidant activity may help stabilize brain cells and improve their functioning by neutralizing damage from free radicals.
Steven Tannebaum Ph.D., psychologist with ADHD has tried OPC and says, "I can now finish what I start," he raves. Without his three-times-daily regimen of the pine bark extract, he becomes mentally scattered and unable to focus. "When that happens, Ill run to take the medicine (Pycnogenol), and fifteen minutes later Ill be calm, cool, and collected for about three and a half hours." He compares it to the stimulant drug cylert. "It functions like a stimulant in that it produces the increase in attention, the increase in focus, the decrease in emotional reactivity." He also feels it elevates his mood.
Tenenbaum notes that like prescription stimulants, the OPC seems to work for some but not others. It does not eliminate the problem, of course, but only helps control it. "It just dampens some of the intensity of the disorder," he asserts.
Super Blue Green Algae
Center for Family Wellness Study
This pilot research study was designed to investigate the effect of eating super blue green algae on children who experience learning, social, and behavioral problem.
The Achenbach Child Behavior Check List and The Teacher Report Form provide a standardized assessment of a childs behavior at home and at school. These well respected test instruments have high validity and reliability and have been used in several national studies.
142 Children initially enrolled in the study. There were 109 children in the final sample. The sample included children living with their biological parents as well as with adoptive and foster parents. The adopted children came from 21 countries including the United Sates, 6 South American countries, 6 Easter European countries, 4 Central America countries, as well as Korea, India, Jamaica, and the Philippines. Most of the adopted children had been with their United States families for more than one year, some since infancy.
Of the 109 subjects who completed the study, the mean age was 9 years and 1 month. There were 55 girls ranging in age from 4 to 16 (mean age: 9 years, 4 months) and 54 boys ranging in age from 3 years, 6 months to 17 (mean age: 9 years).
Families were sent a Consent/Disclosure form which delineated research procedures, possible risks and benefits, and mutual responsibilities. Parents were asked to fill out a detailed Intake Questionnaire covering their childs medical, behavioral and academic history, current performance and concerns. Parents rated their own expectations fro change resulting from adding the Algae to their childs diet.
Achenbach Child Behavior Check Lists for each child enrolled in the study were completed by parents. Parents were instructed that their child could not begin eating Algae until all forms and test instruments were completed and returned to the Center.
The Teacher Report Form was accompanied by a letter explaining that the child had been selected to participate in a national study on child behavior and development. Teachers were not informed of the nature of the research intervention in order to minimize biased responses. Both beginning and ending Teacher Report Forms were returned directly to the Center.
At the conclusion of ten weeks, parents were sent an Exit Survey and an additional Child Behavior Checklist to be completed and returned to the Center.
All documents were accompanied by pre-addressed stamped envelopes to facilitate a prompt return and minimize costs for parents.
Log Books: Instructions and Recording Tool
Parents received a 3 month Log Book in which to record the amount of Algae their child ate each day. These books contained directions specifying the amount their child ate each day. These books contained directions specifying the amount of each product the child was to consume. Parents were instructed to use the log books to record their observations, any changes in health and medication, as well as noteworthy events in the childs life. These notes were shared with Center team liaisons during weekly phone calls. Parents were free to call their liaison with questions and concerns as they arose.
Standard Feeding Protocol.
Children consumed a combination of Alpha Sun, Omega Sun and Liquid Omega. Parents selected tablets or capsules depending upon which form they believed would be easier for their child to swallow. Parents were instructed to refrigerate the Liquid Omega and to shake it before each use. Suggestions on how to encourage children to eat the Algae were also provided. (See Supplemental Information: Introducing Children to Algae)
All youngsters began on a start-up program designed to gradually introduce the Algae. Two protocols were developed, one for children over the age of six and one for children five years and under. During the first week, children over age six ate tow Omega Sun tablets or capsules in the morning. An additional Omega Sun, to be consumed in the afternoon or evening, was introduced in the second week. One Alpha Sun was added in the morning during the third week. During the remaining seven weeks, children over age six ate three Omega and one Alpha per day for a total of one gram of Algae. Children age 5 and under ate one-half of the above amounts in the same order, consuming a total of one half gram per day. Children of all ages were given the Liquid Omega at parents discretion or childs request. Amounts were noted in the log book.
Dosage: Children 5 and Under:
Week one: One omega in the morning. Use liquid omega as needed for impulse control, focus, and calm.
Week two: One omega in the morning and one-half in the afternoon. Use liquid omega as needed.
Week three to thirteen: One omega in the morning and one-half in the afternoon. Use liquid omega as needed. Take one-half of the Alpha in the mornings.
Dosage: Children 6 and Over:
Week one: Two omegas in the morning. Use liquid omega as needed for impulse control, focus, homework, competition, and chores.
Week two: Two omegas in the morning and one in the afternoon. Use liquid as needed.
Week Three to Thirteen: Two omegas in the morning and one in the afternoon. Use liquid omega as needed. Take one Alpha in the morning.
Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Ratings)
Of the 121 children who completed the ten week protocol, parents returned end-of-study Achenbach parent forms for 109 of the children.
Parents reported highly significant improvement in their childrens mood and behavior on ten out of eleven measures of the standardized rating instrument. See Parent Chart Figure IVa and IVb. Significant improvement was reported on the eleventh. Behavioral changes included: significant improvement in the ability to focus, follow directions and concentrate a reduction in argumentative, demanding and combative behavior fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression improvement in social skills few signs of emotional and behavioral withdrawal less acting out behavior and fewer conduct problems a reduction in behaviors characterized as "strange" fewer physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomach aches, for which there is no apparent medical cause.
These findings indicate that parents observed notable decreases across a wide range of symptomatic behavioral and emotional problems which were statistically significant.
Caregiver Report, Ages 2-5
Caregivers (day care providers, baby-sitters) of the youngest participants also rated the children as demonstrating fewer problems with all scores showing symptom reduction at the conclusion of the study. However, because of the small number of children in this age range (six), these changes, while clinically noteworthy, are not statistically significant. There is a one if five chance that these changes could be due to random factors, and therefore the results cannot be viewed as reflecting real change.
NOTE: In research studies, changes are considered to be real or significant (attributable to the treatment effect) if they are unlikely to be due to random or chance factors.
When the likelihood that random factors are operating is less than five in one hundred (p<.05) or one in one hundred (p<.01) are considered to be statistically significant; probabilities of less than one in one thousand (p<.001) are considered to be highly significant.
Statistically significant changes were determined by using paired t-tests.
Teacher Report Form (TRF)
Of the 109 children who completed the 10 week protocol, 6 were recorded under the caregiver report as noted above. Post-test teacher forms were received for only 82 of the children. This is not uncommon with studies of this type, as teachers are often unavailable to complete the forms at the closing of the school year.
Teachers noted marked changes in the childrens behavior on a wide range of behaviors. Those which are statistically significant include:
an improvement in the ability to focus and concentrate
a decrease in behaviors associated with emotional withdrawal
a reduction in aggressive and acting out behaviors
The change in the overall score was significant, as were the changes in the composite scores reflecting Internalizing and Externalizing behaviors. Social skills, "strange" conduct and behaviors associated with anxiety and depression were not rated as significantly improved. These results may mean that the children did not exhibit changes in these behaviors or that improvements in these areas are less noticeable in a classroom setting.
In summary, the results of this study indicate that parents and teachers responded significant positive changes in the children who ate Super Blue Green (SBU) Algae for ten or more weeks. Of particular significance for ADHD is the fact that improvement in the ability to focus and in aggressive behaviors and other conduct problems.
Parent Concerns and Outcomes:
Parents shared a number of concerns about their children on the intake form that were not covered in the Achenbach measurements. Those concerns were re-addressed for amount of improvement in the closing document. Parents reported improvements in many areas, the most striking being that 59% of parents perceived that their youngsters appeared happier after 10 weeks of eating the Algae. Over 50% of the youngsters were seen as improving in their ability to tolerate frustration, regain balance after emotional outbursts and comply with parental requests. Parents also perceived their children as becoming more adaptable, with 48% exhibiting a more flexible attitude and 42% displaying an improved ability to make transitions. This appeared to impact household functioning as 47% of the youngsters improved in their ability to perform morning routines while 33% displayed a smoother bedtime routine. In 43% of the families there was a decrease in the amount of time their youngsters needed to be "timed out." Parents also noted growth in their childrens ability to accept criticism (33%) and demonstrate insight into their behavior (48%), as well an increased sense of humor (42%).
Overview of log call observations:
Few children reported changes during the first week. During the second and subsequent weeks, parents saw changes in eating and sleeping patterns. Four children displayed obvious signs of being fatigued. Two seemed tired to parents for 1-3 days; two school age children began to take naps on their own volition the first week.
In addition, children began to request new additions to their normal food lists. Team members heard about increased desires for carrots; fruit, especially oranges and apples; cereal and yogurt in eight children. Five other children seemed to shun favorite "junk foods", preferring more wholesome snacks. Three children who had been light or picky eaters became less finicky and parents noted general improvement in appetite.
Some children developed stomach discomfort as their bodies adjusted to this potent new food. Five children complained of feeling gassy and this feeling lasted from 1-6 days. Possibly related, three children complained that they burped up the algae taste the first week.
Bowel changes were noted in a number of children. One child had a loose stool for one day; one had green stool temporarily; two had more copious or frequent stools the first week; three seemed less constipated, more regular and had softer stools throughout the program; and one had a more regular stool for 10 days and then was constipated for 3 weeks.
Two children complained of head discomfort lasting 1-3 days.
Two unrelated children who were inclined to cold sores had a flare up on their faces. Two children had white "pontilla" type rashes on their faces; five had flushed or red rough rashes on parts of their bodies. These rashes, which did not itch, lasted between one and two weeks and then subsided.
One child threw intermittent fevers which coincided with the introduction of the Omega. This lasted off and on for four weeks, subsiding if she reduced or eliminated her Algae.
Nine children showed a variety of what appeared to be emotional responses as they started eating Algae. Some resumed behaviors they appeared to have outgrown such as increased thumb-sucking, hair-twirling, crying, frustrated screaming and biting. Others requested extra hugs or cuddling, showed more separation anxiety, and displayed increased bonding behavior with parents. One of these children reverted to an earlier preoccupation with shredding paper. Some of these behaviors seemed to be connected to past losses.
One child became more impulsive with the addition of the third Omega Sun which lasted for a week. After the child was cut back to tow Omega for an additional week, the complete protocol was tolerated with no additional problems.
Eight children, all with behavioral and emotional challenges, seemed to respond negatively to the Alpha. Six had behavioral deterioration at home and at school. Two reported that they felt "weird" or "scattered".
As the study progressed parents saw differences in their childrens emotional reactivity. Lower frustration levels, decreased shining, smaller mood swings, shorter rebound periods after disturbances were reported. Also reported were increases in calmness, ability to deal with delays in gratification and in the timely completion of chores and tasks. Teachers began to send home unsolicited notes or call parents to report more appropriate behavior at school and increased concentration and focusing skills. Parents and teachers, alike, reported more creative play individually and with peers, better social skills, and more self-reliance.
Language and Reading Skills
During the latter third of the study period, many children exhibited language and reading skill improvement. All of the language problems measured in the study showed small but statistically significant improvements. These include:
Ability to describe common objects
Ability to remember names of common objects
Decrease in the tendency to mix up words
Decrease in the tendency to use a different word that the one intended
Decrease in the tendency to mix up sounds of words
Here are some possible reasons:
Perhaps it is due to SBGAs rich source of essential amino acids, which are in a balance that almost exactly matches the human bodys need for essential amino acids. Essential amino acids are known to be brain-food. The neuropeptids the amino acids are feeding are helping to improve the connections of the neurotransmitters-the connections of the nerves in the brain. The algae is also a rich source of serotonin another nutrient known to help our neurotransmitters.
If these problems are somehow related to a mineral deficiency, the body may be getting the right balance of trace minerals and other minerals that it was not getting before.
SBGA often helps our bodies return to an optimal state of homeostasis-or balance. If the reason for these problems is that something is out of balance-for instance a metabolism, the nutrients in the algae may help the child return to a proper state of balance by doing some of his/her own self healing, returning the metabolism rate to more optimal functioning.
If a child has these problems because of metal toxicity, or toxicity from food additives, or environmental pollutants, it may be working because of the high percentage of chlorophyll helping to cleanse our bodies of these potentially harmful toxins.
If the problem is created by lower C4B protein levels, it could result in increased likelihood of infections. The high levels of beta-carotene in the algae may help boost immune functioning and may improve the childs ability to overcome this problem.
When a child is on medications, the body is sometimes robbed of needed proteins. Sixty percent of the algae is high quality protein. Perhaps SBGA is helping by giving the child more usable protein.
Due to the fact that the causes are still in question, we dont entirely know why the algae often works well for children and adults with these problems. We do know that the algae is a rich source of nutrition in a very assailable form.
Although the algae seems to be an effective alternative for children, producers make no claims that it will specifically help your child improve his/her problem with paying attention, focusing, learning or behavioral problems. We can, however say that he/she may respond extremely well to the nutrients in the algae and that it is proving to be an effective alternative and we believe it is well worth giving it a try.
Behavioral Medicine | Therapeutic Intervention